The embryonic phase and its implication in the hatchling size and condition of Atlantic bobtail squid Sepiola atlantica
Early life stages of cephalopods are somewhat complex due to the life history strategy or species specificity of generalized ontogenetic patterns and processes. This work aimed to determine the time length of embryonic development at different temperatures, and if the egg size is a determinant of hatchling size in Sepiola atlantica d'Orbigny, 1839-1842. Successful hatching occurred in 98.5-100% of the eggs for each female. As seen in other coleoid cephalopods, temperature determines the amount of time for embryonic development in S. atlantica, and the obtained data were very similar to other coleoid cephalopods. Developmental times for temperatures at 13 ± 0.4°C, 18 ± 0.3°C and 16.4 ± 1.1°C were 61.8 ± 3.8, 22.6 ± 1.7 and 40.1 ± 4.8 days. The duration of embryonic development and hatchling mantle length was not strictly related. The egg volume was positively related to hatchling mantle length. Our results provide new records on the duration of embryogenesis and other information on reproductive patterns in this species. Some hatching and post-hatching behaviour are shown and discussed.