Architecture and Dynamics of Kepler's Candidate Multiple Transiting Planet Systems
Abstract
About onethird of the ~1200 transiting planet candidates detected in the first four months of Kepler data are members of multiple candidate systems. There are 115 target stars with two candidate transiting planets, 45 with three, 8 with four, and 1 each with five and six. We characterize the dynamical properties of these candidate multiplanet systems. The distribution of observed period ratios shows that the vast majority of candidate pairs are neither in nor near loworder meanmotion resonances. Nonetheless, there are small but statistically significant excesses of candidate pairs both in resonance and spaced slightly too far apart to be in resonance, particularly near the 2:1 resonance. We find that virtually all candidate systems are stable, as tested by numerical integrations that assume a nominal massradius relationship. Several considerations strongly suggest that the vast majority of these multicandidate systems are true planetary systems. Using the observed multiplicity frequencies, we find that a single population of planetary systems that matches the higher multiplicities underpredicts the number of singly transiting systems. We provide constraints on the true multiplicity and mutual inclination distribution of the multicandidate systems, revealing a population of systems with multiple superEarthsize and Neptunesize planets with low to moderate mutual inclinations.
 Publication:

The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
 Pub Date:
 November 2011
 DOI:
 10.1088/00670049/197/1/8
 arXiv:
 arXiv:1102.0543
 Bibcode:
 2011ApJS..197....8L
 Keywords:

 celestial mechanics;
 planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability;
 planets and satellites: fundamental parameters;
 planets and satellites: general;
 planetary systems;
 Astrophysics  Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
 EPrint:
 27 pages, 19 figures, 8 tables, emulateapj style. Accepted to ApJ. This version includes several minor changes to the text