Continuing our series of papers on the three-dimensional (3D) structure and accurate distances of planetary nebulae (PNe), we present here the results obtained for PN NGC 40. Using data from different sources and wavelengths, we construct 3D photoionization models and derive the physical quantities of the ionizing source and nebular gas. The procedure, discussed in detail in the previous papers, consists of the use of 3D photoionization codes constrained by observational data to derive the 3D nebular structure, physical and chemical characteristics, and ionizing star parameters of the objects by simultaneously fitting the integrated line intensities, the density map, the temperature map, and the observed morphologies in different emission lines. For this particular case we combined hydrodynamical simulations with the photoionization scheme in order to obtain self-consistent distributions of density and velocity of the nebular material. Combining the velocity field with the emission-line cubes we also obtained the synthetic position-velocity plots that are compared to the observations. Finally, using theoretical evolutionary tracks of intermediate- and low-mass stars, we derive the mass and age of the central star of NGC 40 as (0.567 ± 0.06) M sun and (5810 ± 600) yr, respectively. The distance obtained from the fitting procedure was (1150 ± 120) pc.
The Astrophysical Journal
- Pub Date:
- September 2011
- methods: numerical;
- planetary nebulae: individual: NGC 40;
- Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics
- 12 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ