ThreeDimensional Topological Insulators
Abstract
Topological insulators in three dimensions are nonmagnetic insulators that possess metallic surface states (SSs) as a consequence of the nontrivial topology of electronic wavefunctions in the bulk of the material. They are the first known examples of topological order in bulk solids. We review the basic phenomena and experimental history, starting with the observation of topological insulator behavior in Bi_{x}Sb_{1x} by angle and spinresolved photoemission spectroscopy (spinARPES) and continuing through measurements on other materials and by other probes. A selfcontained introduction to the singleparticle theory is then given, followed by the manyparticle definition of a topological insulator as a material with quantized magnetoelectric polarizability. The last section reviews recent work on strongly correlated topological insulators and new effects that arise from the proximity effect between a topological insulator and a superconductor. Although this article is not intended to be a comprehensive review of what is already a rather large field, we hope that it serves as a useful introduction, summary of recent progress, and guideline to future directions.
 Publication:

Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics
 Pub Date:
 March 2011
 DOI:
 10.1146/annurevconmatphys062910140432
 arXiv:
 arXiv:1011.5462
 Bibcode:
 2011ARCMP...2...55H
 Keywords:

 Condensed Matter  Strongly Correlated Electrons
 EPrint:
 53 pages, 9 figures, 1 table. Preprint version from June 2010 of invited article for Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics. Final edited version will be published online c. January 2011