Context. It has recently been shown that the terrestrial planets and asteroid belt can be reproduced if the giant planets underwent an inward-then-outward migration (the "Grand Tack"; Walsh and collaborators). Inward migration occurs when Jupiter opens a gap and type II migrates inward. The planets "tack" and migrate outward when Saturn reaches the gap-opening mass and is caught in the 3:2 resonance with Jupiter.
Aims: The aim is to test the viability of the Grand Tack model and to study the dynamical evolution of Jupiter and Saturn during their growth from 10 M⊕ cores.
Methods: We have performed numerical simulations using a grid-based hydrodynamical code. Most of our simulations assume an isothermal equation of state for the disk but a subset use a fully-radiative version of the code.
Results: For an isothermal disk the two phase migration of Jupiter and Saturn is very robust and independent of the mass-growth history of these planets provided the disk is cool enough. For a radiative disk we find some outcomes with two phase migrations and others with more complicated behavior. We construct a simple, 1D model of an evolving viscous disk to calculate the evolution of the disk's radiative properties: the disk transitions from radiative to isothermal from its outermost regions inward in time.
Conclusions: We show that a two-phase migration is a natural outcome at late times even under the limiting assumption that isothermal conditions are required. Thus, our simulations provide strong support for the Grand Tack scenario.
Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Pub Date:
- September 2011
- accretion disks;
- planets and satellites: formation;
- methods: numerical;
- Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
- 16 pages, 21 figures, accepted in Astronomy and Astrophysics