Future soft singularities, BornInfeldlike fields, and particles
Abstract
We consider different scenarios of the evolution of the Universe, where the singularities or some nonanalyticities in the geometry of the spacetime are present, trying to answer the following question: is it possible to conserve some kind of notion of particle corresponding to a chosen quantum field present in the universe when the latter approaches the singularity? We study scalar fields with different types of Lagrangians, writing down the secondorder differential equations for the linear perturbations of these fields in the vicinity of a singularity. If both independent solutions are regular, we construct the vacuum state for quantum particles as a Gaussian function of the corresponding variable. If at least one of two independent solutions has a singular asymptotic behavior, then we cannot define the creation and the annihilation operators and construct the vacuum. This means that the very notion of particle loses sense. We show that at the approaching to the big rip singularity, particles corresponding to the phantom scalar field driving the evolution of the universe must vanish, while particles of other fields still can be defined. In the case of the model of the universe described by the tachyon field with a special trigonometric potential, where the big brake singularity occurs, we see that the (pseudo) tachyon particles do not pass through this singularity. Adding to this model some quantity of dust, we slightly change the characteristics of this singularity and tachyon particles survive. Finally, we consider a model with the scalar field with the cusped potential, where the phantom divide line crossing occurs. Here the particles are well defined in the vicinity of this crossing point.
 Publication:

Physical Review D
 Pub Date:
 July 2020
 DOI:
 10.1103/PhysRevD.102.024078
 arXiv:
 arXiv:2005.01784
 Bibcode:
 2020PhRvD.102b4078G
 Keywords:

 General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology;
 High Energy Physics  Theory
 EPrint:
 13 pages, 1 figure. Final version to be published in PRD