Divergent specific heat at zero Kelvins: breakdown of the Third law of thermodynamics
Abstract
Thermodynamics, the branch of physics concerned with the description of macroscopic bodies, heat exchange and the conversion of different forms of energy is based on four laws: the zeroth law, which states that bodies in thermal contact reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the first law, which postulates the energy conservation and establishes the way in which different forms of energy transform into eachother, the second law, which states that the entropy increases or stays constant in time in any isolated system, and, finally, the third law (or Nernst postulate), which states that the entropy of any system approaches a constant minimum when temperature approaches 0 K. One of the direct consequences of the third law is that the specific heat of any system converges to zero when its temperature decreases to zero Kelvins. Here we show that the third law is violated in a wide class of fermionic systems, by calculating the specific heat and showing that it diverges to infinity when the absolute zero temperature is approached. Until now, no exception to these four laws is know in physics. These findings ask for the revision of one of the most fundamental laws of nature.
 Publication:

arXiv eprints
 Pub Date:
 October 2010
 arXiv:
 arXiv:1010.0259
 Bibcode:
 2010arXiv1010.0259A
 Keywords:

 Condensed Matter  Statistical Mechanics
 EPrint:
 This paper has been withdrawn by the author. There is an error in Eq. (13), which compromises the main result