Photon and graviton mass limits
Abstract
Efforts to place limits on deviations from canonical formulations of electromagnetism and gravity have probed length scales increasing dramatically over time. Historically, these studies have passed through three stages: (1) testing the power in the inversesquare laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving explicit gauge or generalcoordinate invariance. Since the previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit, and rapid current progress in astronomy makes further advance likely. For gravity there have been vigorous debates about even the concept of graviton rest mass. Meanwhile there are striking observations of astronomical motions that do not fit Einstein gravity with visible sources. “Cold dark matter” (slow, invisible classical particles) fits well at large scales. “Modified Newtonian dynamics” provides the best phenomenology at galactic scales. Satisfying this phenomenology is a requirement if dark matter, perhaps as invisible classical fields, could be correct here too. “Dark energy” might be explained by a gravitonmasslike effect, with associated Compton wavelength comparable to the radius of the visible universe. Significant mass limits are summarized in a table.
 Publication:

Reviews of Modern Physics
 Pub Date:
 January 2010
 DOI:
 10.1103/RevModPhys.82.939
 arXiv:
 arXiv:0809.1003
 Bibcode:
 2010RvMP...82..939G
 Keywords:

 14.70.Bh;
 03.50.De;
 04.20.q;
 95.35.+d;
 Photons;
 Classical electromagnetism Maxwell equations;
 Classical general relativity;
 Dark matter;
 High Energy Physics  Phenomenology;
 Astrophysics;
 General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology;
 High Energy Physics  Theory
 EPrint:
 42 pages Revtex4. This version contains corrections and changes contained in the published version, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 939979 (2010), with a few additions