This research was conducted to determine the removal characteristics of butane, using an electron beam. Influential factors, such as an initial concentration, background gases (nitrogen, air, and helium), and absorbed doses (kGy) were investigated. The decomposition efficiencies of background gases showed that oxidation caused by radicals formed from gases, such as N 2 and O 2, had a greater influence on results than oxidation from primary electrons for butane removal. Removal efficiencies were 40% at 2.5 kGy and 66% at 10 kGy, when the initial concentration of butane was 60 ppmC. When the initial concentration was lower, the energy efficiency of butane removal by electron beam was higher. By-products, including CO 2, CO, acetaldehyde, and acetone, formed after electron beam irradiation. Concentrations of CO 2 and CO tended to increase when absorbed doses increased as butane was decomposed by the electron beam through an advanced oxidation.