A series of α-Gd 2(MoO 4) 3 phosphors with various Dy 3+ concentrations was synthesized by solid state reaction method. The crystal structure and morphology of the phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The luminescence properties of Dy 3+ in α-Gd 2(MoO 4) 3 were systematically studied. The electric dipole-dipole interaction between Dy 3+ ions was identified as the main mechanism for luminescence quenching, according to the analysis of concentration quenching and the fluorescent dynamics. The chromatic nature of the phosphors was also analyzed in detail.