Highly efficient estimation of entanglement measures for large experimentally created graph states via simple measurements
Quantifying experimentally created entanglement could in principle be accomplished by measuring the entire density matrix and calculating an entanglement measure of choice thereafter. Due to the tensor structure of the Hilbert space, this approach becomes unfeasible even for medium-sized systems. Here we present methods for quantifying the entanglement of arbitrarily large two-colorable graph states from simple measurements. The presented methods provide non-trivial bounds on the entanglement for any state as long as there is sufficient fidelity with such a graph state. The measurement data considered here is merely given by stabilizer measurements, thus leading to an exponential reduction in the number of measurements required. We provide analytical results for the robustness of entanglement and the relative entropy of entanglement.