The origin of Pantheon Fossae, a complex structure consisting of radial graben in the center of the Caloris basin, Mercury, has been debated since the structure was first imaged by the MESSENGER spacecraft. Three different formation hypotheses have been suggested, i.e. an origin associated with the Apollodorus impact into a previously domed Caloris basin floor, graben formation as surface expressions of dike intrusions and basin-interior uplift alone. In order to test the scenarios, detailed observations from the currently available imagery were compared to the proposed formation mechanisms. We evaluate these origin hypotheses by means of detailed interpretations of the graben characteristics and patterns, by comparing to radial structures from Earth and Venus, and by mechanical analyses for each formation hypothesis. Results indicate that the formation of Pantheon Fossae as the result of doming in the central part of the Caloris basin is more likely than it having formed in association with a radially symmetric stress field centered at or near the Apollodorus crater, that would have been created by a magma chamber or been superimposed on a pre-existing dome due to impact mechanics.