Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is a quantum phenomenon of formation of the collective quantum state, in which the macroscopic number of particles occupies the lowest energy state and thus is governed by a single wave function. Here we highlight the BEC in a magnetic subsystem -- the BEC of magnons, elementary magnetic excitations. Magnon BEC is manifested as the spontaneously emerging state of the precessing spins, in which all spins precess with the same frequency and phase even in the inhomogeneous magnetic field. We consider this phenomenon on example of spin precession in superfluid phases of $^3$He. The magnon BEC in these phases has all the properties of spin superfluidity. The states of the phase-coherent precession belong to the class of the coherent quantum states, which manifest themselves by superfluidity, superconductivity, quantum Hall effect, Josephson effect and many other macroscopic quantum phenomena.
- Pub Date:
- April 2009
- Condensed Matter - Quantum Gases;
- Condensed Matter - Superconductivity;
- High Energy Physics - Phenomenology
- 23 pages, 7 figures, Review for "Contemporary Physics"