We present a direct measurement of the density profile of a two-dimensional Mott Insulator formed by ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. High resolution absorption imaging is used to probe the "wedding-cake" structure of a trapped gas as it crosses the boundary from a unit-filled Mott insulating phase to the superfluid phase at finite temperature. Detailed analysis of images yields measurements of temperature and local compressibility; for the latter we observe a strong suppression deep in the Mott-insulating phase, which is recovered for the superfluid and normal phases. Furthermore, we measure spatially resolved fluctuations in the local density, showing a suppression of fluctuations in the insulator. Results are consistent with the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for insulator, superfluid and normal gas.