The mammalian innate immune system is activated by foreign nucleic acids. Detection of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in the cytoplasm triggers characteristic antiviral responses and macrophage cell death. Cytoplasmic dsDNA rapidly activated caspase 3 and caspase 1 in bone marrow-derived macrophages. We identified the HIN-200 family member and candidate lupus susceptibility factor, p202, as a dsDNA binding protein that bound stably and rapidly to transfected DNA. Knockdown studies showed p202 to be an inhibitor of DNA-induced caspase activation. Conversely, the related pyrin domain-containing HIN-200 factor, AIM2 (p210), was required for caspase activation by cytoplasmic dsDNA. This work indicates that HIN-200 proteins can act as pattern recognition receptors mediating responses to cytoplasmic dsDNA.