Electrodynamics with Lorentzviolating operators of arbitrary dimension
Abstract
The behavior of photons in the presence of Lorentz and CPT violation is studied. Allowing for operators of arbitrary mass dimension, we classify all gaugeinvariant Lorentz and CPTviolating terms in the quadratic Lagrange density associated with the effective photon propagator. The covariant dispersion relation is obtained, and conditions for birefringence are discussed. We provide a complete characterization of the coefficients for Lorentz violation for all mass dimensions via a decomposition using spinweighted spherical harmonics. The resulting nine independent sets of spherical coefficients control birefringence, dispersion, and anisotropy in the photon propagator. We discuss the restriction of the general theory to various special models, including among others the minimal standardmodel extension, the isotropic limit, the case of vacuum propagation, the nonbirefringent limit, and the vacuumorthogonal model. The transformation of the spherical coefficients for Lorentz violation between the laboratory frame and the standard Suncentered frame is provided. We apply the results to various astrophysical observations and laboratory experiments. Astrophysical searches of relevance include studies of birefringence and of dispersion. We use polarimetric and dispersive data from gammaray bursts to set constraints on coefficients for Lorentz violation involving operators of dimensions four through nine, and we describe the mixing of polarizations induced by Lorentz and CPT violation in the cosmicmicrowave background. Laboratory searches of interest include cavity experiments. We present the general theory for searches with cavities, derive the experimentdependent factors for coefficients in the vacuumorthogonal model, and predict the corresponding frequency shift for a circularcylindrical cavity.
 Publication:

Physical Review D
 Pub Date:
 July 2009
 DOI:
 10.1103/PhysRevD.80.015020
 arXiv:
 arXiv:0905.0031
 Bibcode:
 2009PhRvD..80a5020K
 Keywords:

 11.30.Cp;
 11.30.Er;
 13.40.f;
 Lorentz and Poincare invariance;
 Charge conjugation parity time reversal and other discrete symmetries;
 Electromagnetic processes and properties;
 High Energy Physics  Phenomenology;
 Astrophysics  Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics;
 Astrophysics  High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena;
 General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology;
 High Energy Physics  Theory
 EPrint:
 58 pages twocolumn REVTeX, accepted in Physical Review D