We present a new concept for compensation of single mode fiber (SMF) birefringence effects in a Sagnac quantum key distribution (QKD) setup, based on a polarization control system and a polarization insensitive phase modulator. Our experimental data show stable (in regards to birefringence drift) QKD over 1550 nm SMF telecom networks in Sagnac configuration, using the BB84-protocol [C.H. Bennett, G. Brassard, in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1984, p. 175] with phase encoding. The achieved total Sagnac transmission loop distances were between 100 km and 150 km with quantum bit error rates (QBER) between 5.84% and 9.79% for the mean-photon-number μ = 0.1. The distances were much longer and rates much higher than in any other published Sagnac QKD experiments. We also show an example of our one-decoy state protocol implementations (for the 45 km distance between Alice and Bob, corresponding to the 130 km total Sagnac loop length), providing an unconditional QKD security. The measurement results have showed feasibility of QKD over telecom fiber networks in Sagnac configuration, using standard fiber telecom components.