We characterize the lithospheric structure of Isidis Planitia on Mars by analyzing Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey gravity and topography data using a flexural model of a thin elastic shell including bending and membrane stresses. Isidis Planitia is a circular, relatively flat plain formed near the end of the Early Noachian, at the edge of the highlands-lowlands boundary and the site of a large free-air gravity anomaly, features consistent with modification and filling of an impact basin. Our results suggest that the bulk density of the fill material inside Isidis must be more than 2600 kg m -3 and higher densities are probable. A comparison of the faulting observed at Nili Fossae to the predicted zone of extensional strain northwest of Isidis constrains the thickness of the elastic lithosphere to be 100-180 km thick beneath the basin at the time of loading. We also find that loads outside of the basin play a significant role in the interpretation of the tectonics; simplified models tend to overestimate the lithospheric thickness. We place relatively narrow bounds on the thermal gradient (3.4-6.5 K km -1) and heat flux (13.6-26 mW m -2) at Isidis at the time of loading.