Lyttelton Volcano, Banks Peninsula, New Zealand: Primary volcanic landforms and eruptive centre identification
Lyttelton Volcano, Banks Peninsula, New Zealand, has historically been viewed as a simple volcanic cone. This paper uses digital terrain models (DTM) and primary volcanic landforms to reinterpret Lyttelton Volcano as having multiple eruptive centres. Primary volcanic landforms are features produced during active volcanism, classified as constructional, hypabyssal, and erosional volcanic features. Constructional volcanic features are lava flows, scoria cones and domes; hypabyssal volcanic features are dykes and sills; and erosional volcanic features are valley and ridge patterns and orientations. Lava flow trends are recognised from aerial photograph analysis and supported by field observations, highlighting radiating lava trends around specific locations within Lyttelton Harbour. Scoria cones and domes occur on the outer flanks of volcanic cones, and are used as such in the identification of remnant cone surfaces. Dyke orientations are plotted and then projected to the interior of the volcano, defining 13 zones of convergence. The projected arrays of these orientations highlight defined regions along the erosional crater rim, each indicating a radial dyke swarm, from which the projected trends of the associated dykes indicate an eruptive centre. Valley and ridge orientations are projected from the longest valley or ridge segment, towards the inner harbour. Radiating erosive patterns are incepted during the growth and degradation of a volcanic cone, with the resulting trends orienting to the summit. Zones of convergence/eruptive centres are identified from lava flow orientations, onlapping lava sequences, scoria cones, and intrusive locations. The summit of a volcanic edifice can be identified from the orientations of valleys and ridges, while radial dyke systems determine whether this summit was a volcanic centre or simply a local topographic high. Volcanic landforms are used to identify cone sectors, the preserved sector associated with a particular eruptive centre. Cone sector limits are defined by a basal footprint and an erosional crater rim, with similar arcuate features (remnant cone features) being exposed in the interior of the volcano. Lyttelton Volcano comprises fifteen volcanic cones, with vent locations controlled by underlying fault lineaments. The growth and erosion of each volcanic cone is reflected in primary volcanic landforms, with the preserved features of cones confined to cone sectors and cone artefacts.