This article reviews the fundamental properties of InGaN materials. The growth kinetics associated with the growth parameters, such as growth temperatures, V/III ratios, and growth rates which influence the quality of the InGaN epilayers, are briefly described. An overview of the properties of the InGaN alloys, such as the optical, structural and electrical characteristics, is presented. The design and fabrication of novel optoelectronic device structures require an accurate knowledge of the band gap as a function of alloy composition; therefore, attention is paid to Vegard's law and the bowing parameter; in addition, the major factors leading to the uncertainties of the bowing parameter of InGaN are addressed. Apart from that, the determination of indium composition by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using different assumptions and various equations are summarized. The erroneous measurements of the indium composition by using this technique are also described. Finally, different emission mechanisms of the strained InGaN quantum wells proposed by different groups of researchers are also discussed.