DNA’s remarkable molecular recognition properties and structural features make it one of the most promising templates to pattern materials with nanoscale precision. The emerging field of DNA nanotechnology strips this molecule from any preconceived biological role and exploits its simple code to generate addressable nanostructures in one, two, and three dimensions. These structures have been used to precisely position proteins, nanoparticles, transition metals, and other functional components into deliberately designed patterns. They can also act as templates for the growth of nanowires, aid in the structural determination of proteins, and provide new platforms for genomics applications. The field of DNA nanotechnology is growing in a number of directions, carrying with it the promise to substantially affect materials science and biology.