The detection of primordial non-Gaussianity could provide a powerful means to test various inflationary scenarios. Although scale-invariant non-Gaussianity (often described by the fNL formalism) is currently best constrained by the CMB, single-field models with changing sound speed can have strongly scale-dependent non-Gaussianity. Such models could evade the CMB constraints but still have important effects at scales responsible for the formation of cosmological objects such as clusters and galaxies. We compute the effect of scale-dependent primordial non-Gaussianity on cluster number counts as a function of redshift, using a simple ansatz to model scale-dependent features. We forecast constraints on these models achievable with forthcoming datasets. We also examine consequences for the galaxy bispectrum. Our results are relevant for the Dirac-Born-Infeld model of brane inflation, where the scale dependence of the non-Gaussianity is directly related to the geometry of the extra dimensions.