The cosmic age crisis and the Hubble constant in a nonexpanding universe
Abstract
The present paper outlines a cosmological paradigm based upon Dirac’s large number hypothesis and continual creation of matter in a closed static (nonexpanding) universe. The cosmological redshift is caused by the tiredlight phenomenon originally proposed by Zwicky. It is shown that the tiredlight cosmology together with continual matter creation has a universal Hubble constant H _{0}=(512 π ^{2}/3)^{1/6}( GC _{0})^{1/3} fixed by the universal rate C _{0} of matter creation, where G is Newton’s gravitational constant. It is also shown that a closed static universe has a finite age τ _{0}=(243 π ^{5}/8 GC _{0})^{1/3} also fixed by the universal rate of matter creation. The invariant relationship H _{0} τ _{0}=3 π ^{2}6^{1/2} shows that a closed static universe is much older (≈one trillion years) than any expanding universe model based upon BigBang cosmology. It is this property of a static universe that resolves any cosmic age crisis provided that galaxy formation in the universe is a continual recurring process. Application of Dirac’s large number hypothesis gives a matter creation rate C _{0}=4.6×10^{48} gm cm^{3} s^{1} depending only on the fundamental constants of nature. Hence, the model shows that a closed static universe has a Hubble constant H _{0}=70 km s^{1} Mpc^{1} in good agreement with recent astronomical determinations of H _{0}. By using the above numerical value for H _{0} together with observational data for elongated cellularwall structures containing superclusters of galaxies, it is shown that the elongated cellularwall configurations observed in the real universe are at least one hundred billion years old. Application of the microscopic laws of physics to the largescale macroscopic universe leads to a static eternal cosmos endowed with a matterantimatter symmetry. It is proposed that the matterantimatter asymmetry is continuously created by particleantiparticle pair annihilation occurring in episodic cosmological gammaray bursts observed in the real universe.
 Publication:

Astrophysics and Space Science
 Pub Date:
 September 2008
 DOI:
 10.1007/s1050900898530
 Bibcode:
 2008Ap&SS.317...45S
 Keywords:

 Cosmology;
 Closed static universe;
 Largescale structure of the universe;
 Matterantimatter asymmetry