We study the local distinguishability of general multi-qubit states and show that local projective measurements and classical communication are as powerful as the most general local measurements and classical communication. Remarkably, this indicates that the local distinguishability of multi-qubit states can be decided efficiently. Another useful consequence is that a set of orthogonal $n$-qubit states is locally distinguishable only if the summation of their orthogonal Schmidt numbers is less than the total dimension $2^n$. When $n=2$ such a condition is also sufficient. Employing these results, we show that any orthonormal basis of a subspace spanned by arbitrary three-qubit orthogonal unextendible product bases (UPB) cannot be exactly distinguishable by local operations and classical communication. This not only reveals another intrinsic property of three-qubit orthogonal UPB, but also provides a class of locally indistinguishable subspaces with dimension 4. We also explicitly construct locally indistinguishable subspaces with dimensions 3 and 5, respectively. In particular, 3 is the minimal possible dimension of locally indistinguishable subspaces. Combining with the previous results, we conclude that any positive integer between 3 and 7 is the possible dimension of some three-qubit locally indistinguishable subspace.
- Pub Date:
- August 2007
- Quantum Physics
- Version 2, 10 pages (Revtex 4). Add a new author together with new results: indistinguishable subspaces with dimensions 3 and 5. Presented at AQIS08 as a long talk