A pollen profile from Okarito Pakihi Bog in south Westland, New Zealand extending from near present back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 provides a continuous record of vegetation and climate change for the past two glacial cycles. Independent chronological control was obtained by AMS radiocarbon dating of organic sediments in the upper part of the sequence and OSL dating of inorganic silts in the lower part, with a unique tie point provided by the ca 26.5 cal ka Kawakawa Tephra. As was probably a common occurrence in this region, the basin developed as a moraine-dammed proglacial lake and remained lacustrine until the early Holocene, when a peat bog developed. Survival of the depositional site through subsequent multiple ice advances, unusual in a glaciated landscape, was probably assisted by lateral displacement of the basin relative to its source area, across the Alpine Fault. There is good correspondence between inferred periods of substantial treeline depression in the pollen profile and the record for ice advance in this region. More cooling events are evident in the pollen record, however, presumably due to the fragmentary nature of glacial geomorphology. The pollen record also shows broad consistency with the MIS record and hence with the Milankovitch orbital forcing model, but with some departures, including an early onset to the last glacial maximum (LGM). Several sub-Milankovitch scale events are also evident, including a mid-LGM warming and Lateglacial reversals during both the last and the penultimate deglaciation.