We determine electron delocalization rates in liquid water and ice using core-hole decay spectroscopy. The hydrogen-bonded network delocalizes the electrons in less than 500 as. Broken or weak hydrogen bonds—in the liquid or at the surface of ice—provide states where the electron remains localized longer than 20 fs. These asymmetrically bonded water species provide electron traps, acting as a strong precursor channel to the hydrated electron.
Physical Review Letters
- Pub Date:
- November 2007
- Time-resolved optical spectroscopies and other ultrafast optical measurements in condensed matter;
- Absorption and reflection spectra: visible and ultraviolet;
- Electron impact: Auger emission;
- Processes caused by X-rays or gamma-rays