ASTE Observations of Warm Gas in Low-Mass Protostellar Envelopes: Different Kinematics between Submillimeter and Millimeter Lines
With the ASTE telescope, we have observed three low-mass protostellar envelopes around L483, B335, and L723 in the submillimeter CS (J = 7-6) and HCN (J = 4-3) lines. We detected both the CS and HCN lines toward all targets, and the typical CS intensity (∼ 1.0 K in TB) was twice higher than that of the HCN line. Mapping observations of L483 in these lines have shown that the submillimeter emissions are resolved, exhibit a western extension from the central protostar, and that the deconvolved size is ∼ 5500 AU × 3700 AU (PA = 78°) in the HCN emission. The extent of the submillimeter emission in L483 implies the presence of higher temperature (/gtrsim 40 K) gas at 4000 AU away from the central protostar, which suggests that we need to take 2-dimensional radiative transfer models with a bipolar cavity into account. The position-velocity diagrams of these submillimeter lines along the axis of the associated molecular outflow exhibit that the sense of the submillimeter velocity gradient is opposite to that of the millimeter observation or the associated molecular outflow, both in L483 and in B335. We suggest that expanding gas motions at the surface of the flattened envelope, which is irradiated by the central protostar directly, are the origin of the observed submillimeter velocity structure.