The world-class Angouran nonsulfide Zn Pb deposit is one of the major Zn producers in Iran, with resources estimated at about 18 Mt at 28% Zn, mainly in the form of the Zn carbonate smithsonite. This study aims to characterize these carbonate ores by means of their mineralogy and geochemistry, which has also been extended to the host rocks of mineralization and other local carbonate rock types, including the prominent travertines in the Angouran district, as well as to the local spring waters. Petrographical, chemical, and stable isotope (O, H, C, Sr) data indicate that the genesis of the Zn carbonate ores at Angouran is fairly distinct from that of other “classical” nonsulfide Zn deposits that formed entirely by supergene processes. Mineralization occurred during two successive stages, with the zinc being derived from a preexisting sulfide ore body. A first, main stage of Zn carbonates (stage I carbonate ore) is associated with both preexisting and subordinate newly formed sulfides, whereas a second stage is characterized by supergene carbonates (Zn and minor Pb) coexisting with oxides and hydroxides (stage II carbonate ore). The coprecipitation of smithsonite with galena, pyrite and arsenopyrite, as well as the absence of Fe- and Mn-oxides/hydroxides and of any discernible oxidation or dissolution of the sphalerite-rich primary sulfide ore, shows that the fluids responsible for the main, stage I carbonate ores were relatively reduced and close to neutral to slightly basic pH with high fCO2. Smithsonite δ18OVSMOW values from stage I carbonate ore range from 18.3 to 23.6‰, while those of stage II carbonate ore show a much smaller range between 24.3 and 24.9‰. The δ13C values are fairly constant in smithsonite of stage I carbonate ore (3.2 6.0‰) but show a considerable spread towards lower δ13CVPDB values (4.6 to -11.2‰) in stage II carbonate ore. This suggests a hypogene formation of stage I carbonate ore at Angouran from low-temperature hydrothermal fluids, probably mobilized during the waning stages of Tertiary Quaternary volcanic activity in an environment characterized by abundant travertine systems throughout the whole region. Conversely, stage II carbonate ore is unambiguously related to supergene weathering, as evidenced by the absence of sulfides, the presence of Fe-Mn-oxides and arsenates, and by high δ18O values found in smithsonite II. The variable, but still relatively heavy carbon isotope values of supergene smithsonite II, suggests only a very minor contribution by organic soil carbon, as is generally the case in supergene nonsulfide deposits.