Capabilities of approximate mathematical modeling of the sounding oil fields with use of shock impulses are studied. To this goal, a multilayered column-waveguide extracted from a solid half-space is considered. The analysis is carried out with reference to plane waves propagating in the multilayered medium with arbitrary located layers of various rheological properties. As a source of signals both surface impulses and underwater or underground explosions, single and periodic, and also harmonious excitation are considered, and displacements of a free surface—as the response. The process of wave propagation under repeated reflections from the layer borders is computed numerically with use of the authors' wave finite element method. The amplitude-frequency spectrum of the reflected signals is analyzed both qualitatively and using an original method of "focusing". It is shown, that the analysis of the response for a shock impulse loading allows receiving sufficiently full information about layers' location and thickness. The considered approaches can be used at processing and analyzing the reflected signals obtained experimentally during investigations of oil fields.