TOPICAL REVIEW: Measurement and interpretation of elastic and viscoelastic properties with the atomic force microscope
This review focuses upon the measurement of force, indentation, and deformation with the atomic force microscope (AFM). Measurement and theory for elastic and viscoelastic particles and substrates are covered, as well as for deformable fluid drops and bubbles. A brief review is given of papers that use tapping mode imaging, normal and lateral force modulation, noise spectra, and indentation measurements. Measurement and calibration techniques that are essential for quantitative results with the AFM are discussed in detail. The author's contribution to elastic and viscoelastic theory for extended range forces is outlined, and the application of these to measured data for the adhesive van der Waals force and for the electric double layer repulsion is described.