Semiempirical Models of the Solar Atmosphere. II. The Quiet-Sun Low Chromosphere at Moderate Resolution
We present a new, one-dimensional model of the solar atmosphere (called SRPM 305) at moderate angular resolution (~1''-2''). Key characteristics of the SRPM 305 model include (1) a minimum temperature of ~3800 K at a gas pressure of ~80 dyne cm-2 and (2) a rapid temperature rise above the temperature-minimum layer that results in substantial overionization of most elements when compared with LTE calculations. The model calculations reproduce the ~4300 K minimum brightness temperature of the UV continuum (between 1400-1500 Å) observed by SUMER and the ~4400 K observed minimum radio-continuum brightness temperature (between wavelengths 0.01 and 100 mm). Neither the UV nor the radio continuum bear on the low-temperature minimum value because their broad intensity contribution functions cause the higher temperatures of the upper chromospheric layers to effectively hide the low minimum temperature region. The SRPM 305 model reproduces the observed intensities of CO lines at 4.466 μm, at both the disk center and near the limb, by using C and O abundances consistent with recent literature low values. The model also reproduces observed intensities of C I spectral lines at 5381 and 8337 Å, CH lines at about 4306 Å, the CN band head at 3883 Å, and the O I lines at 7772, 7774, and 7776 Å, respectively. Using the SRPM 305 model, we find no significant abundance variations between the photosphere and the low chromosphere. Consequently, the single-component model presented here matches several apparently contradictory observations and thereby resolves the controversy about the temperature minimum value.