The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds. IX. The Serpens YSO Population as Observed with IRAC and MIPS
We discuss the combined IRAC/MIPS c2d Spitzer Legacy observations of the Serpens star-forming region. We describe criteria for isolating bona fide YSOs from the extensive background of extragalactic objects. We then discuss the properties of the resulting high-confidence set of 235 YSOs. An additional 51 lower confidence YSOs outside this area are identified from the MIPS data and 2MASS photometry. We present color-color diagrams to compare our observed source properties with those of theoretical models for star/disk/envelope systems and our own modeling of the objects that are well represented by a stellar photosphere plus circumstellar disk. These objects exhibit a wide range of disk properties, from many with actively accreting disks to some with both passive disks and even possibly debris disks. The YSO luminosity function extends down to at least a few times 10-3 Lsolar or lower. The lower limit may be set more by our inability to distinguish YSOs from extragalactic sources than by the lack of YSOs at very low luminosities. We find no evidence for variability in the shorter IRAC bands between the two epochs of our data set, Δt~6 hr. A spatial clustering analysis shows that the nominally less evolved YSOs are more highly clustered than the later stages. The background extragalactic population can be fitted by the same two-point correlation function as seen in other extragalactic studies. We present a table of matches between several previous infrared and X-ray studies of the Serpens YSO population and our Spitzer data set. The clusters in Serpens have a very high surface density of YSOs, primarily with SEDs suggesting extreme youth. The total number of YSOs, mostly Class II, is greater outside the clusters.