We present a multiwavelength study of the central region of the Carina Nebula, including Trumpler 16 and part of Trumpler 14. Our analysis of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory archival data led to the identification of 454 X-ray sources. These sources were then cross-identified with optical photometric and spectroscopic information available from the literature and with newly obtained near-infrared (JHKs) imaging observations. A total of 38 known OB stars are found to be X-ray emitters. All the O stars and early-B stars follow the nominal relation between the X-ray and bolometric luminosities, LX~10-7Lbol. A few mid- to late-B stars are found to be associated with X-ray emission, likely attributable to T Tauri companions. We discovered 16 OB star candidates that suffer a large extinction in the optical wave bands. Some 300 sources have the X-ray and infrared characteristics of late-type pre-main-sequence stars. Our sample represents the most comprehensive census of the young stellar population in the Carina Nebula so far and should be useful for the study of the star formation history of this massive starburst region. We also report the finding of a compact (2'×4') group of 10 relatively bright X-ray sources, all of which are detected in the near-infrared wavelengths and are highly reddened. The group is spatially coincident with the dark V-shaped dust lane bisecting the Carina Nebula and may be part of an embedded association. The distribution of the young stellar groups surrounding the H II region associated with Trumpler 16 is consistent with the collect-and-collapse scenario of triggered star formation.