Context: There are numerous extrasolar giant planets which orbit close to their central stars. These "hot-Jupiters" probably formed in the outer, cooler regions of their protoplanetary disks, and migrated inward to ∼ 0.1 AU. Since these giant planets must have migrated through their inner systems at an early time, it is uncertain whether they could have formed or retained terrestrial planets.
Aims: We present a series of calculations aimed at examining how an inner system of planetesimals/protoplanets, undergoing terrestrial planet formation, evolves under the influence of a giant planet undergoing inward type II migration through the region bounded between 5-0.1 AU.
Methods: We have previously simulated the effect of gas giant planet migration on an inner system protoplanet/planetesimal disk using a N-body code which included gas drag and a prescribed migration rate. We update our calculations here with an improved model that incorporates a viscously evolving gas disk, annular gap and inner-cavity formation due to the gravitational field of the giant planet, and self-consistent evolution of the giant's orbit.
Results: We find that ≳60% of the solids disk survives by being scattered by the giant planet into external orbits. Planetesimals are scattered outward almost as efficiently as protoplanets, resulting in the regeneration of a solids disk where dynamical friction is strong and terrestrial planet formation is able to resume. A simulation that was extended for a few Myr after the migration of the giant planet halted at 0.1 AU, resulted in an apparently stable planet of ∼ 2 moplus forming in the habitable zone. Migration-induced mixing of volatile-rich material from beyond the "snowline" into the inner disk regions means that terrestrial planets that form there are likely to be water-rich.
Conclusions: .We predict that hot-Jupiter systems are likely to harbor water-abundant terrestrial planets in their habitable zones. These planets may be detected by future planet search missions.
Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Pub Date:
- January 2007
- planets and satellites: formation;
- methods: N-body simulations;
- 18 pages, 13 figures. Higher resolution pdf available at http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~mfogg/fogg_nelson2.pdf