The Absolutism of Space and Time with Variable Scalars and Gravitational Theory as well as Cosmology Established in Flat Reference Frame (1)
The Einstein theories of space-time and gravity as well the stander cosmology are reconstructed thoroughly in this paper based on flat reference frame. The rational parts of the Einstein theories are reserved while the irrational parts including space-time paradoxes and singularities and so on are eliminated completely. A more rational the theory of space-time, gravitation and cosmology is established. By transforming the geodesic equation described by the Schwarzschild solution of the Einsteins equation of gravitational field into flat reference frame for of gravitational field, it is provdescription, the revised formulas of the Newtonian gravitation is obtained. Based on the formulas, all experiments which support general relativity can also be explained well, but the theory has no any space-time singularity and other strange characters which exist in general relativity. It is pointed that there exists logical difficulties to use the equivalent principle to explain spectrum gravitational redshift actually. The new formula of gravitational redshift and the revised Doppler formula of redshift when light source moves in gravitational field are deduced. Based on the Schwarzschild solution of the Einstein equation field, it is proved that the speed of light would change and the isotropy of light speed would be violated in gravitational field with spherical symmetry. It is suggested to use the method of the Michelson Morley interference to verify the change of light speed and the violation of isotropy in the gravitational field of the earth. This experiment can be considered as a new verification for general relativity in the weak gravitational field with spherical symmetry. The theory may also be used to explain so-called the Pioneer Anomaly which the Einstein theory of gravitation can not do.