Quadratic and cubic invariants of unipotent affine automorphisms
Abstract
Let $K$ be an arbitrary field of characteristic zero, $P_n:= K[ x_1, ..., x_n]$ be a polynomial algebra, and $P_{n, x_1}:= K[x_1^{1}, x_1, ..., x_n]$, for $n\geq 2$. Let $\s' \in {\rm Aut}_K(P_n)$ be given by $$ x_1\mapsto x_11, \quad x_1\mapsto x_2+x_1,\quad ... ,\quad x_n\mapsto x_n+x_{n1}.$$ It is proved that the algebra of invariants, $F_n':= P_n^{\s'}$, is a polynomial algebra in $n1$ variables which is generated by $[\frac{n}{2}]$ quadratic and $[\frac{n1}{2}]$ cubic (free) generators that are given explicitly. Let $\s \in {\rm Aut}_K(P_n)$ be given by %$$\s \in {\rm Aut}_K(P_n): $$ x_1\mapsto x_1, \quad x_1\mapsto x_2+x_1, \quad ... ,\quad x_n\mapsto x_n+x_{n1}.$$ It is wellknown that the algebra of invariants, $F_n:= P_n^\s$, is finitely generated (Theorem of Weitzenböck, \cite{Weitz}, 1932), has transcendence degree $n1$, and that one can give an explicit transcendence basis in which the elements have degrees $1, 2, 3, ..., n1$. However, it is an old open problem to find explicit generators for $F_n$. We find an explicit vector space basis for the quadratic invariants, and prove that the algebra of invariants $P_{n, x_1}^\s$ is a polynomial algebra over $K[x_1, x_1^{1}]$ in $n2$ variables which is generated by $[\frac{n1}{2}]$ quadratic and $[\frac{n2}{2}]$ cubic (free) generators that are given explicitly. The coefficients of these quadratic and cubic invariants throw light on the `unpredictable combinatorics' of invariants of affine automorphisms and of $SL_2$invariants.
 Publication:

arXiv Mathematics eprints
 Pub Date:
 June 2006
 arXiv:
 arXiv:math/0606196
 Bibcode:
 2006math......6196B
 Keywords:

 Mathematics  Rings and Algebras;
 Mathematics  Algebraic Geometry;
 14L24;
 13A50;
 16W20
 EPrint:
 29 pages