Validation of a vector version of the 6S radiative transfer code for atmospheric correction of satellite data. Part I: Path radiance
A vector version of the 6S (Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum) radiative transfer code (6SV1), which enables accounting for radiation polarization, has been developed and validated against a Monte Carlo code, Coulson's tabulated values, and MOBY (Marine Optical Buoy System) water-leaving reflectance measurements. The developed code was also tested against the scalar codes SHARM, DISORT, and MODTRAN to evaluate its performance in scalar mode and the influence of polarization. The obtained results have shown a good agreement of 0.7% in comparison with the Monte Carlo code, 0.2% for Coulson's tabulated values, and 0.001-0.002 for the 400-550 nm region for the MOBY reflectances. Ignoring the effects of polarization led to large errors in calculated top-of-atmosphere reflectances: more than 10% for a molecular atmosphere and up to 5% for an aerosol atmosphere. This new version of 6S is intended to replace the previous scalar version used for calculation of lookup tables in the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) atmospheric correction algorithm.