Aims.We investigate the effect of including a proper energy balance on the interaction of a low-mass planet with a protoplanetary disk.
Methods: .We use a three-dimensional version of the RODEO method to perform hydrodynamical simulations including the energy equation. Radiation is included in the flux-limited diffusion approach.
Results: .The sign of the torque is sensitive to the ability of the disk to radiate away the energy generated in the immediate surroundings of the planet. In the case of high opacity, corresponding to the dense inner regions of protoplanetary disks, migration is directed outward, instead of the usual inward migration that was found in locally isothermal disks. For low values of the opacity we recover inward migration and show that torques originating in the coorbital region are responsible for the change in migration direction.
Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Pub Date:
- November 2006
- radiative transfer;
- methods: numerical;
- planets and satellites: formation;
- 4 pages, 5 figures, accepted for A&