Bottom tangles and universal invariants
Abstract
A bottom tangle is a tangle in a cube consisting only of arc components, each of which has the two endpoints on the bottom line of the cube, placed next to each other. We introduce a subcategory B of the category of framed, oriented tangles, which acts on the set of bottom tangles. We give a finite set of generators of B, which provides an especially convenient way to generate all the bottom tangles, and hence all the framed, oriented links, via closure. We also define a kind of "braided Hopf algebra action" on the set of bottom tangles. Using the universal invariant of bottom tangles associated to each ribbon Hopf algebra H, we define a braided functor J from B to the category Mod_H of left Hmodules. The functor J, together with the set of generators of B, provides an algebraic method to study the range of quantum invariants of links. The braided Hopf algebra action on bottom tangles is mapped by J to the standard braided Hopf algebra structure for H in Mod_H. Several notions in knot theory, such as genus, unknotting number, ribbon knots, boundary links, local moves, etc are given algebraic interpretations in the setting involving the category B. The functor J provides a convenient way to study the relationships between these notions and quantum invariants.
 Publication:

arXiv Mathematics eprints
 Pub Date:
 May 2005
 DOI:
 10.48550/arXiv.math/0505219
 arXiv:
 arXiv:math/0505219
 Bibcode:
 2005math......5219H
 Keywords:

 Mathematics  Geometric Topology;
 Mathematics  Quantum Algebra;
 57M27;
 18D10;
 57M25
 EPrint:
 This is the version published by Algebraic &