Nonequilibrium phenomena in multiple normalsuperconducting tunnel heterostructures
Abstract
Using the nonequilibrium theory of superconductivity with the tunnel Hamiltonian, we consider a mesoscopic NISINISIN heterostructure, i.e., a structure consisting of five intermittent normalmetal (N) and superconducting (S) islands separated by insulating tunnel barriers (I). Applying the bias voltage between the outer normal electrodes one can drive the central N island very far from equilibrium. Depending on the resistance ratio of outer and inner tunnel junctions, one can realize either effective electron cooling in the central N island or create highly nonequilibrium energy distributions of electrons in both S and N islands. These distributions exhibit multiple peaks at a distance of integer multiples of the superconducting chemical potential. In the latter case the superconducting gap in the S islands is strongly suppressed as compared to its equilibrium value.
 Publication:

Physical Review B
 Pub Date:
 August 2005
 DOI:
 10.1103/PhysRevB.72.054505
 arXiv:
 arXiv:condmat/0503217
 Bibcode:
 2005PhRvB..72e4505V
 Keywords:

 74.45.+c;
 73.23.b;
 74.78.w;
 Proximity effects;
 Andreev effect;
 SN and SNS junctions;
 Electronic transport in mesoscopic systems;
 Superconducting films and lowdimensional structures;
 Condensed Matter  Superconductivity
 EPrint:
 doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.72.054505