Theoretical and phenomenological implications of R-parity violation in supersymmetric theories are discussed in the context of particle physics and cosmology. Fundamental aspects include the relation with continuous and discrete symmetries and the various allowed patterns of R-parity breaking. Recent developments on the generation of neutrino masses and mixings within different scenarios of R-parity violation are discussed. The possible contribution of R-parity-violating Yukawa couplings in processes involving virtual supersymmetric particles and the resulting constraints are reviewed. Finally, direct production of supersymmetric particles and their decays in the presence of R-parity-violating couplings is discussed together with a survey of existing constraints from collider experiments.