Cdc34 is an E2-conjugating enzyme required for catalyzing the polyubiquitination reaction mediated by the Skp1·CUL1·F-box (SCF) protein E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase. Here, we show that the activity of human Cdc34 in the Ub-Ub ligation reaction was enhanced dramatically by SCF's core Ub ligase module, composed of a heterodimeric complex formed by the ROC1 RING finger protein and the CUL1 C terminus that contains a Nedd8 moiety covalently conjugated at K720. Unexpectedly, we found that N-terminal fusion of a GST moiety to human Cdc34 generated dimeric GST-Cdc34 that was constitutively active in supporting the assembly of K48-linked polyUb chains independently of SCF. Furthermore, fusion of a FK506-binding protein (FKBP) to the N terminus of human Cdc34 yielded FKBP-Cdc34 that was induced to form a dimer upon treatment with the chemical inducer AP20187. The AP20187-induced dimeric form of FKBP-Cdc34 was substantially more active than the monomer in catalyzing Ub-Ub ligation. Thus, juxtaposition of human Cdc34 activates its catalytic capability, suggesting that the SCF-mediated polyubiquitination reaction may require the conversion of Cdc34 from an inactive monomer to a highly active dimeric form.