Golgi targeting of human guanylate-binding protein-1 requires nucleotide binding, isoprenylation, and an IFN-γ-inducible cofactor
Human guanylate-binding protein-1 (hGBP-1) is a large GTPase, similar in structure to the dynamins. Like many smaller GTPases of the Ras/Rab family, it is farnesylated, suggesting it may dock into membranes and perhaps play a role in intracellular trafficking. To date, however, hGBP-1 has never been associated with a specific intracellular compartment. Here we present evidence that hGBP-1 can associate with the Golgi apparatus. Redistribution from the cytosol to the Golgi was observed by immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation after aluminum fluoride treatment, suggesting that it occurs when hGBP-1 is in its GTP-bound state. Relocalization was blocked by a farnesyl transferase inhibitor. The C589S mutant of hGBP-1, which cannot be farnesylated, and the previously uncharacterized R48P mutant, which cannot bind GTP, both failed to localize to the Golgi. These two mutants had a dominant-negative effect, preventing endogenous wild-type hGBP-1 from efficiently redistributing after aluminum fluoride treatment. Furthermore, hGBP-1 requires another IFN-γ-induced factor to be targeted to the Golgi, because constitutively expressed hGBP-1 remained cytosolic in cells treated with aluminum fluoride unless the cells were preincubated with IFN-γ. Finally, two nonhydrolyzing mutants of hGBP-1, corresponding to active mutants of Ras family proteins, failed to constitutively associate with the Golgi; we propose three possible explanations for this surprising result.