Travel times of 11,612 Pn arrivals collected from 7675 earthquakes are inverted to image the uppermost mantle velocity and anisotropy structure beneath the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula and surrounding regions. Pn phases are routinely identified and picked for epicentral distances from 200 to 1200 km. The method used in this study allows simultaneous imaging of variations of Pn velocity and anisotropy. The results show an average uppermost mantle velocity beneath the study area of 8.0 km/s. The peninsular area covered by the Iberian massif is characterized by high Pn velocity, as expected in tectonically stable regions, indicating areas of the Hercynian belt that have not recently been reactivated. The margins of the Iberian Peninsula have undergone a great number of recent tectonic events and are characterized by a pronouncedly low Pn velocity, as is common in areas greatly affected by recent tectonic and magmatic activity. Our model indicates that the Betic crustal root might be underlined by a negative anomaly beneath the southeastern Iberian Peninsula. In the Atlantic Ocean, we find a sharp variation in the uppermost mantle velocities that coincides with the structural complexity of the European and African plate boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz. Our results show a very pronounced low-velocity anomaly offshore from Cape San Vicente whereas high velocities are distributed along the coast in the Gulf of Cadiz. In the Alboran Sea and northern Morocco, the direction of the fastest Pn velocity found is almost parallel to the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence vector (northwest-southeast) whereas to the north, this direction is almost parallel to the main trend of the Betic Cordillera, i.e. east-west in its central part and north-south in the curvature of the Arc of Gibraltar. This suggests that a significant portion of the uppermost mantle has been involved in the orogenic deformation that produced the arcuate structure of the Betic Cordillera. However, we assume that the Neogene extension had no major influence on a lithospheric scale in the Alboran Sea. Our results also show a quite complex pattern of anisotropy in the southwest Iberian lithospheric mantle since the relationship between the direction of fastest Pn velocity and major Hercynian tectonic trends cannot be directly established.