Petrogenetic processes in the ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism in the Kola Alkaline Province: A review
Igneous rocks of the Devonian Kola Alkaline Carbonatite Province (KACP) in NW Russia and eastern Finland can be classified into four groups: (a) primitive mantle-derived silica-undersaturated silicate magmas; (b) evolved alkaline and nepheline syenites; (c) cumulate rocks; (d) carbonatites and phoscorites, some of which may also be cumulates. There is no obvious age difference between these various groups, so all of the magma-types were formed at the same time in a relatively restricted area and must therefore be petrogenetically related. Both sodic and potassic varieties of primitive silicate magmas are present. On major element variation diagrams, the cumulate rocks plot as simple mixtures of their constituent minerals (olivine, clinopyroxene, calcite, etc). There are complete compositional trends between carbonatites, phoscorites and silicate cumulates, which suggests that many carbonatites and phoscorites are also cumulates. CaO / Al 2O 3 ratios for ultramafic and mafic silicate rocks in dykes and pipes range up to 5, indicating a very small degree of melting of a carbonated mantle at depth. Damkjernites appear to be transitional to carbonatites. Trace element modelling indicates that all the mafic silicate magmas are related to small degrees of melting of a metasomatised garnet peridotite source. Similarities of the REE patterns and initial Sr and Nd isotope compositions for ultramafic alkaline silicate rocks and carbonatites indicate that there is a strong relationship between the two magma-types. There is also a strong petrogenetic link between carbonatites, kimberlites and alkaline ultramafic lamprophyres. Fractional crystallisation of olivine, diopside, melilite and nepheline gave rise to the evolved nepheline syenites, and formed the ultramafic cumulates. All magmas in the KACP appear to have originated in a single event, possibly triggered by the arrival of hot material (mantle plume?) beneath the Archaean/Proterozoic lithosphere of the northern Baltic Shield that had been recently metasomatised. Melting of the carbonated garnet peridotite mantle formed a spectrum of magmas including carbonatite, damkjernite, melilitite, melanephelinite and ultramafic lamprophyre. Pockets of phlogopite metasomatised lithospheric mantle also melted to form potassic magmas including kimberlite. Depth of melting, degree of melting and presence of metasomatic phases are probably the major factors controlling the precise composition of the primary melts formed.