A New Double-Moment Microphysics Parameterization for Application in Cloud and Climate Models. Part I: Description.
A new double-moment bulk microphysics scheme predicting the number concentrations and mixing ratios of four hydrometeor species (droplets, cloud ice, rain, snow) is described. New physically based parameterizations are developed for simulating homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation, droplet activation, and the spectral index (width) of the droplet size spectra. Two versions of the scheme are described: one for application in high-resolution cloud models and the other for simulating grid-scale cloudiness in larger-scale models. The versions differ in their treatment of the supersaturation field and droplet nucleation. For the high-resolution approach, droplet nucleation is calculated from Kohler theory applied to a distribution of aerosol that activates at a given supersaturation. The resolved supersaturation field and condensation/deposition rates are predicted using a semianalytic approximation to the three-phase (vapor, ice, liquid) supersaturation equation. For the large-scale version of the scheme, it is assumed that the supersaturation field is not resolved and thus droplet activation is parameterized as a function of the vertical velocity and diabatic cooling rate. The vertical velocity includes a subgrid component that is parameterized in terms of the eddy diffusivity and mixing length. Droplet condensation is calculated using a quasi-steady, saturation adjustment approach. Evaporation/deposition onto the other water species is given by nonsteady vapor diffusion allowing excess vapor density relative to ice saturation.