High spatial resolution images of Mars were acquired with the Advanced Electro-Optical System (AEOS) 3.63-meter telescope at the Maui Space Surveillance System (MSSS) during both the 2001 and 2003 Mars apparitions. Comparisons are made of the surface albedo patterns obtained from these AEOS images to the surface albedo maps constructed from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data taken during the same time periods. These comparisons demonstrate that the images provide albedo information in a limited area surrounding the sub-Earth point that is consistent with the TES-derived albedo field. Additionally, it is shown that by employing adaptive optics (AO), the typical ground-based observing season of Mars can be extended. This is the only known published AO data set of Mars with temporal coverage over an entire apparition. Changes in the surface albedo affect the local ground temperature, which impacts the depth of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) above the surface. Since it is the state of the PBL that controls surface/atmospheric interaction, albedo variations have the power to alter the amount of dust that is lifted. A one-dimensional radiative/convective version of the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model is used to demonstrate that the measured albedo variations can alter the daytime ground temperatures by as much as 5 K, which in turn alters the structure of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Therefore, albedo changes are thermodynamically important, and the ability to characterize them, should orbital observations become unavailable, is a valuable capability.