These lectures were addressed to nonspecialists willing to learn some basic facts, approaches, tools and observational evidence which conform modern cosmology. The aim is also to try to complement the many excellent treatises that exists on the subject (an exhaustive treatment being in any case impossible for lack of time, in the lectures, and of space here), instead of trying to cover everything in a telegraphic way. We start by recalling in the introduction a couple of philosophical questions that have always upset inquiring minds. We then present some original mathematical approaches to investigate a number of basic questions, as the comparison of two point distributions (each point corresponding to a galaxy or galaxy cluster), the use of non-standard statistics in the analysis of possible non-Gaussianities, and the use of zeta regularization in the study of the contributions of vacuum energy effects at the cosmological scale. And we also summarize a number of important issues which are both undoubtedly beautiful (from the physical viewpoint) and useful in present-day observational cosmology. To finish, the reader should be warned that, for the reasons already given and lack of space, some fundamental issues, as inflation, quantum gravity and string theoretical fundamental approaches to cosmology will not be dealt with here. A minimal treatment of any of them would consume more pages than the ones at disposal and, again, a number of excellent treatments of these subjects are available.