Topologically Alice strings and monopoles
Abstract
Symmetry breaking can produce “Alice” strings, which alter scattered charges and carry monopole number and charge when twisted into loops. Alice behavior arises algebraically, when strings obstruct unbroken symmetries—a fragile criterion. We give a topological criterion, compelling Alice behavior or deforming it away. Our criterion, that π_{0}(H) acts nontrivially on π_{1}(H), links topologically Alice strings to topological monopoles. We twist topologically Alice loops to form monopoles. We show that Alice strings of condensed matter systems (nematic liquid crystals, ^{3}HeA, and related nonchiral Bose condensates and amorphous chiral superconductors) are topologically Alice, and support fundamental monopole charge when twisted into loops. Thus they might be observed indirectly, not as strings, but as looplike point defects. We describe other models, showing Alice strings failing our topological criterion; and twisted Alice loops supporting deposited, but not fundamental, monopole number.
 Publication:

Physical Review D
 Pub Date:
 July 2004
 DOI:
 10.1103/PhysRevD.70.025005
 arXiv:
 arXiv:hepth/0407001
 Bibcode:
 2004PhRvD..70b5005B
 Keywords:

 11.27.+d;
 11.30.Fs;
 11.30.Ly;
 98.80.Cq;
 Extended classical solutions;
 cosmic strings domain walls texture;
 Global symmetries;
 Other internal and higher symmetries;
 Particletheory and fieldtheory models of the early Universe;
 High Energy Physics  Theory
 EPrint:
 2 figures