The article is dedicated to the current status of neutron polycapillary optics and its application. X-ray and neutron polycapillary optics was first suggested in my papers published and patented about 20 years ago. The first X-ray lens was made about 20 years ago (in 1985) in my laboratory at the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Power. The first neutron assembled capillary lens consisting of several thousand polycapillaries was assembled and tested 2 years later at the atomic reactor of the Kurchatov Institute. A great many experiments were done at the atomic reactors in Russia, Germany, France, USA for neutron beam focusing, turning. Most successful were the experiments on turning neutron beam at the atomic reactor in Berlin, where it was possible to turn the neutron beam by the angle of 20°. Numerous experiments in Germany and France proved high efficacy of polycapillary optics in controlling thermal neutron radiation. The article gives new results obtained in creating pure beams of thermal neutrons on the basis of polycapillary optics. New polycapillary technologies developed at IRO, Moscow/Unisantis, Geneva, enable creation of neutron diffractometers, spectrometers, reflectometers, microscopes—all with a micron-size focal spot. All instruments are portable and highly efficient. Such generation of instruments has been already developed and realized for X-rays, and the same process for neutron beams has already started. So, neutron polycapillary optics makes it possible to create new instruments and raise the level of scientific research, and also enables use of neutron beam for industrial application in production environment.